The share of independent work is about 75% of the total student workload and that includes reading, research work depending on the subjects. The share of active work (lectures and seminars) is also given prominent importance (10-15%). The common approach is to have a lecture per week and two exercises per courses. Depending on the pedagogical approach certain units may require more directed learning. In many courses students are required to work through a certain amount of compulsory readings, usually 15-20 pages per seminar. In addition written assignments in the form of 1-2 page reflection paper, 5-7 page essays or up to 15 page research papers must be prepared. Independent work also includes teamwork assignments.