UBT Nursing Industry Demand and Cooperation
The course of study is based on well documented practice trials, development and research work reflecting current tendencies in the profession, including changes in the heath and disease patterns of the population and the function and priorities of the system. The Nurse contributes to fulfilling public health objectives in the health care system and the social system. The specific domain of the nurse comprises nursing care and treatment of patients and citizens with the goal of enabling them to handle living with illness or the threat of illness. The nurse collaborates with the other healthcare professionals to provide health promotion, health maintenance, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and relief.
The market for nursing profession is being shaped by various polittical, economic, social and demographic trends. The Government of Kosovo with the support of development partners has initiatied several reform initiativs of the health sector. The Government Plan 2016-2021 and the National Development Strategy 2016-2021 highlight the need to carry out health reforms with the aim at making healthcore more affordable and closer to citizens. While the Government has steadily increased funding for others public policy domain, there is a prevailing consensus that healthcare has not taken its share of attention and funding. A Law on Health Insuruance has been proposed by the Government in 2015 and its is in the finalisation process. Many local and international health insurance companies have expanded their services but the legacy of dependenance on government for healthcare is still strong.
Kosovans have been increasingly seeking better and more qualitative healthservices. Their satisfaction with healthcare services in the past years has been very low (UNDP, 2015). This can be best explained by the growing tendency to seek healthcare services abroad to the tune of 65 Million Euro annually mainly in neighbouring Macedonia, Turkey and Western Europe. Private healthcare services have existed in Kosovo since the past two decades but only a few large clinics have gained traction. Much of the private healthcare services is offered though individul general medical practicioners.
Kosovo’s demand for more specialist and qualitative services in healthcare can also be explained by the increasing awareness on the importance of healthcare prevention. More Kosovan’s have been requesting services in recent years and that is in part due to demographic pressure and an incrased awarness on illneses. Overall, there are 6 regional hospital, 1 University Clinical Centre, 36 main family health centres, 12 associated institutions and about 421 family health centres and ambulantas. Kosovo, according to the data of the Ministry of Health, is well below regional and international standards on the number of nurses per 1000 residents. The national sectoral strategy of health indicates that there are only about 2.7 nurses per 1000 residents in Kosovo compared to above 2 in Albania, 4 in Serbia and 5 in Croatia. The existing nurse professional supply is well below Sweeden that has 10 nurses per 1000 residents.
Kosovo needs to nearly double the existing number of nurses in order to approximate to regional averages and triple it in order to reach EU averages. The demand for nursing skills is also being fuelled by another three important demographic factors: the number of people will continue to increse by large percentage points until 2021, the number of older people as a share of total population is increasing and nursing brain drain. By some estimates, around 200 medical technicians, including nurses, have been migrating to Western Europe countries where demand for nursing services has significantly increased. The EU Labour Demand Forcast 2014-2020 indicates that EU 28 will need an additional 200,000 nurses and medical technicians by 2020. This can be demonstrated by an increasingly liberal EU labour market towards nurses and IT technicians and the number of vacancies seeking nurses.
On the other hand, the existing nursing cadre is underqualified with majority having secondary education. The Ministry of Health has put an increasing emphasis in qualification advancement for the existing cadre in view of European best practices. Current estimates indicate that around 300 nurses annualy would need to undergo requalification programmes until 2020. Furthermore, the demand for nursing profession is also being fuelled by around 4500 secondary school students coming from medical and nursing profiles seeking further education.
Clinical education is organized at clinical placements within the social and health areas. The education is organized in close collaboration between the educational institution and the clinical placement in order to strengthen the connection between the students’ learning in theory and practice. In clinical education the student is part of authentic nursing situations and patient trajectories in interaction with nurses and other health professionals. The clinical education and evaluation is made by clinical educators in collaboration with the education institution and the lecturers at the institution. The student studies has planned and targeted education and counseling on the basis of representative patient trajectories and nursing situations relevant to the theme of the modules as well as demands to competences and evaluation since the students can work with patient trajectories across wards/sectors. Agreements are made on: